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AGAR (AGAR-AGAR)

A firming agent (gelling agent) made from certain red sea algae. It is used for making fruit jellies, thickening yoghurt, pharmaceuticals, etc. Agar can also be marked with E number E406. 

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BATON CANDIES

Soft uncoated candies. 

BARS

Large-sized candies, which can also be chocolate coated.  

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DRAGÉE

A small, round-shaped confection, usually with nuts, fruits, berries, cereal balls, raisins, etc. coated with a layer of chocolate or sugar. 

DEXTROSE (GRAPE SUGAR, GLUCOSE)

Also known as grape sugar or glucose. It is the main component of starch and the type of sugar digested fastest by the human body. In many cases, dextrose can be used to replace sugar, but since its sweetness is about 25% lower than that of sugar, the final product will also be slightly less sweet. 

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FURCELLARAN

An agar-like firming agent also produced from seaweed, but from a different species. Furcellaran produced by Saaremaa company Estagar using the red seaweed Furcellaria lumbricalis from the Baltic Sea may also be marked with E number E407. Kalev uses it to make their fruit jelly fillings. Furcellans of other origins may be marked with E number E408. 

G
GREYING

Chocolate is sensitive to rapid changes in temperature (from hot to cold and vice versa) and excessive humidity, as well as just high temperatures. As a result, the structure of the chocolate changes rapidly, and soon a visible dull grey layer appears on the surface of the chocolate, as if it were “blooming”. Depending on the specific situation, it is the crystallisation of cocoa butter and/or nut fat or sugar on the surface of the chocolate. It is often thought to be mould, but that is not the case. Greying of chocolate is not a health hazard, but it does greatly affect the appearance of the product. 

GRILLAGE (CROQUANT)

Crispy pieces of nuts or almonds caramelised in sugar. Pieces of grillage are ingredients in the “Žürii” candies and they are also added to the fillings of some of Kalev’s handmade candies. 

GLUCOSE-FRUCTOSE SYRUP

Syrup containing glucose and fructose, prepared from a starch solution the same way as glucose syrup. However, part of the glucose is here converted into fructose during the production process. Because fructose is sweeter than glucose, glucose-fructose syrup is also sweeter glucose syrup. Like glucose syrup, however, glucose-fructose syrups can have very different properties – there are those sweeter than sugar and others that are less sweet. 

GLUCOSE SYRUP

Syrup containing glucose (or dextrose) made from starch solution. The starch can be derived from wheat, corn, potatoes, peas or other starch-rich plants. Glucose syrup is first made into an aqueous solution of starch, where water breaks long chains of starch into smaller glucose (or dextrose) particles. The properties of the syrup largely depend on how much starch is broken down into elementary particles (or glucose molecules) and how much of it remains unbroken. The higher the glucose content in the finished syrup, the sweeter the syrup will be, but it will still be less sweet than sugar. 

GIANDUJA

A creamy mixture of chocolate and hazelnut paste. A product called ‘Gianduja chocolate’ must contain at least 20 to 40 grams of nut paste per 100 grams. 

GANACHE

A creamy mixture of chocolate and cream which can be used in chocolate fondant or as a glazing or filling for cakes, pastries, etc. 

H
HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE FAT

Hydrogenation, or solidification, is the process by which liquid vegetable oil is converted into solid (or more solid) fat. In essence, this means that liquid unsaturated fatty acids contained in the oil are converted into saturated solid fatty acids by hydrogenation. The goal of the process is to achieve a firmer fat. As a positive side effect, fat retention is also improved, as saturated fatty acids are significantly more resistant to rancidity than unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, hydrogenation affects a number of technologically and sensorily important properties (for example, hardening and melting speeds). However, as a negative side effect, undesirable trans fatty acids can be formed during the process. It is important to know that trans fatty acids can only be formed during partial hydrogenation. Fully hydrogenated fat does not contain trans fatty acids. This is due to the fact that trans fatty acids can by nature only be unsaturated. When the fat is fully hydrogenated, this means that all unsaturated fatty acids have been converted into saturated fatty acids, which excludes the presence of trans fatty acids. 
Kalev does not use partially hydrogenated vegetable fats in their products. Therefore, Kalev’s products do not contain industrial trans fatty acids. 

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