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AGAR (AGAR-AGAR)

A firming agent (gelling agent) made from certain red sea algae. It is used for making fruit jellies, thickening yoghurt, pharmaceuticals, etc. Agar can also be marked with E number E406. 

ASSORTED CANDIES

Assorted candies have been a part of Kalev’s product range for decades, and as a result, the term “assorted candies” has become a concept in its own right. In fact, “assorted” means a selection or mix of candies (or other products) of the same type. Kalev’s assorted candies are made from dark or milk chocolate and contain fillings of different taste and character: cream, chocolate, cream liqueur, nut, fruit jelly etc.

BATON CANDIES

Soft uncoated candies. 

BARS

Large-sized candies, which can also be chocolate coated.  

CHOCOLATE

Chocolate is a sweet treat that has been known for thousands of years. Today, chocolate is made from cocoa mass and cocoa butter (from roasted cocoa beans), and sugar; in the case of milk chocolate, milk components are also added to the mix. A candy is only allowed to be referred to as chocolate if it has been made using cocoa butter, and it may only contain up to 5% of other vegetable fats. Kalev chocolates are made from 100% cocoa butter.

CANDIED FRUIT

Dried orange or lemon peel processed in sugar syrup, added to the sweet filling to enrich the flavour, e.g. to the filling of some handmade candies by Kalev. 

CHEWING CANDY

The “Draakoni” chewing candies with a unique composition developed by Kalev’s confectioners, are very popular among children. The candies have a pleasantly chewy structure and a sweet creamy or fruity taste. “Draakoni” chewing candies do not contain preservatives or food colours.

CONCHING

Thermal and mechanical treatment of the chocolate mass, the purpose of which is primarily to provide flavour and aroma, but also to improve the texture and flowing properties. All this is facilitated by the release of moisture from the treated mass. The duration of conching depends largely on the equipment used and its effectiveness, and of course the desired result and type of chocolate. With modern devices the process can be completed in hours, but with older methods, it can take up to a couple of days.

CARRAGEENAN

Carrageenan is an agar-like gelling agent made from algae, which gives a product chewability and elasticity. Kalev uses it in their “Draakoni” chewing candies. Carrageenan can also be marked with E number E407. 

CARAMEL

Hard caramel made mainly from sugar and glucose syrup.

Maiustused. Sõnaraamat. Kalev
COCOA BUTTER

Light yellow edible vegetable fat obtained by pressing cocoa bean pulp. Cocoa butter is solid at room temperature and completely melted at 40 degrees Celsius. Cocoa butter is considered to be one of the most valuable vegetable fats in the world.

COCOA BEAN MASS (COCOA MASS)

Ground cocoa kernels. Liquid mass is produced during the grinding of the kernels, since more than half of the composition of the kernels is fat (cocoa butter) that comes out of the kernels during the grinding. When cooled to room temperature, the mass becomes solid, as cocoa butter melts at about 36 degrees Celsius.

COCOA BEAN

The seed in the fruit of the cocoa tree. Only the core of the cocoa bean is edible, but it has a bitter taste. Therefore, cocoa beans are pre-fermented, dried and roasted and mixed with a suitable amount of sugar to make chocolate.

COCOA TREE (THEOBROMA CACAO)

An evergreen tree up to 10 metres tall that grows near the equator in a tropical climate. The largest cocoa producer in the world is Côte d’Ivoire. The blossoms are red and white, attached to the trunk of the tree. The fruit are about 30 cm long and shaped like cucumbers. Each fruit contains 25 to 60 cocoa beans. The average annual yield per tree is 1 kg of cocoa beans. The crop is harvested twice a year, in spring and in autumn.

DRAGÉE

A small, round-shaped confection, usually with nuts, fruits, berries, cereal balls, raisins, etc. coated with a layer of chocolate or sugar. 

DEXTROSE (GRAPE SUGAR, GLUCOSE)

Also known as grape sugar or glucose. It is the main component of starch and the type of sugar digested fastest by the human body. In many cases, dextrose can be used to replace sugar, but since its sweetness is about 25% lower than that of sugar, the final product will also be slightly less sweet. 

FAT REDUCED COCOA POWDER

The cocoa powder is obtained from a solid residue formed after pressing the cocoa bean mass, which is crushed and ground. Cocoa powder must contain at least 20% cocoa butter; fat reduced cocoa powder must have a fat content of less than 20%, typically 10 to 12%.

FOOD COLOUR

Substance added to foods to produce the desired colour or to improve its natural colour. 

FONDANT

Refrigerated mass of whipped sugar and syrup used as a filling in candies. An example of a fondant candy is Kalev’s “Tõmmu”.

FRUIT DROPS

Small glass-caramel candies of different colours and flavours.

FRUIT PASTILLE

A fruit-jelly-filled candy that contains furcellaran, a gelling agent produced by Estonian company Estagar. The filling is mainly flavoured with fruit and berry preserves and flavourings. 

FURCELLARAN

An agar-like firming agent also produced from seaweed, but from a different species. Furcellaran produced by Saaremaa company Estagar using the red seaweed Furcellaria lumbricalis from the Baltic Sea may also be marked with E number E407. Kalev uses it to make their fruit jelly fillings. Furcellans of other origins may be marked with E number E408. 

GELATIN

Odourless and tasteless substance used for thickening or gelling various foods. Gelatin is a substance of animal origin and is therefore unsuitable for vegetarians. Gelatin in the European Union is also referred to as E441. 

GREYING

Chocolate is sensitive to rapid changes in temperature (from hot to cold and vice versa) and excessive humidity, as well as just high temperatures. As a result, the structure of the chocolate changes rapidly, and soon a visible dull grey layer appears on the surface of the chocolate, as if it were “blooming”. Depending on the specific situation, it is the crystallisation of cocoa butter and/or nut fat or sugar on the surface of the chocolate. It is often thought to be mould, but that is not the case. Greying of chocolate is not a health hazard, but it does greatly affect the appearance of the product. 

GRILLAGE (CROQUANT)

Crispy pieces of nuts or almonds caramelised in sugar. Pieces of grillage are ingredients in the “Žürii” candies and they are also added to the fillings of some of Kalev’s handmade candies. 

GLUCOSE-FRUCTOSE SYRUP

Syrup containing glucose and fructose, prepared from a starch solution the same way as glucose syrup. However, part of the glucose is here converted into fructose during the production process. Because fructose is sweeter than glucose, glucose-fructose syrup is also sweeter glucose syrup. Like glucose syrup, however, glucose-fructose syrups can have very different properties – there are those sweeter than sugar and others that are less sweet. 

GLUCOSE SYRUP

Syrup containing glucose (or dextrose) made from starch solution. The starch can be derived from wheat, corn, potatoes, peas or other starch-rich plants. Glucose syrup is first made into an aqueous solution of starch, where water breaks long chains of starch into smaller glucose (or dextrose) particles. The properties of the syrup largely depend on how much starch is broken down into elementary particles (or glucose molecules) and how much of it remains unbroken. The higher the glucose content in the finished syrup, the sweeter the syrup will be, but it will still be less sweet than sugar. 

GIANDUJA

A creamy mixture of chocolate and hazelnut paste. A product called ‘Gianduja chocolate’ must contain at least 20 to 40 grams of nut paste per 100 grams. 

GANACHE

A creamy mixture of chocolate and cream which can be used in chocolate fondant or as a glazing or filling for cakes, pastries, etc. 

HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE FAT

Hydrogenation, or solidification, is the process by which liquid vegetable oil is converted into solid (or more solid) fat. In essence, this means that liquid unsaturated fatty acids contained in the oil are converted into saturated solid fatty acids by hydrogenation. The goal of the process is to achieve a firmer fat. As a positive side effect, fat retention is also improved, as saturated fatty acids are significantly more resistant to rancidity than unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, hydrogenation affects a number of technologically and sensorily important properties (for example, hardening and melting speeds). However, as a negative side effect, undesirable trans fatty acids can be formed during the process. It is important to know that trans fatty acids can only be formed during partial hydrogenation. Fully hydrogenated fat does not contain trans fatty acids. This is due to the fact that trans fatty acids can by nature only be unsaturated. When the fat is fully hydrogenated, this means that all unsaturated fatty acids have been converted into saturated fatty acids, which excludes the presence of trans fatty acids. 
Kalev does not use partially hydrogenated vegetable fats in their products. Therefore, Kalev’s products do not contain industrial trans fatty acids. 

INVERTASE

An enzyme that helps the body break down sugar into its ingredients: glucose and fructose. In confectionery, invertase helps to inhibit the development of microorganisms, prevent crystallisation of the product and retain moisture. In the wild, bees make honey from nectar using invertase, and invertase is also found in the human body where it contributes to the digestion of sugar. Industrially, invertase is produced mainly from microorganisms, mostly from baker’s yeast.

LECITHIN (LIQUEFIER)

It is similar in structure to fat and is a vital component of body cells. The human body is able to synthesise it by itself, but it is also abundant in animal foods such as egg yolk. Lecithin is also called the “brain vitamin” and is available as a dietary supplement in pharmacies. Lecithin is marked with E number E322. Lecithin is added in chocolate to liquefy it, which allows the chocolate mass to flow more smoothly without too much cocoa butter, making it easier to pump. The lecithin most commonly used in confectionery is from soya or sunflower. Sunflower lecithin is mainly used in Kalev’s products.

MARZIPAN

A confectionery consisting of chopped almonds, syrup and powdered sugar, which can be used, among other things, to make figurines or to fill candies, chocolate or the like. It is one of the oldest candies manufactured in Estonia, with production dating back to the Middle Ages. Marzipan probably originated from Persia (modern-day Iran), where written sources first mentioned this sweet treat in the 9th century. In the Early Middle Ages, marzipan reached Europe, where the old Hanseatic towns of Reval (now known as Tallinn) and Lübeck started manufacturing it almost simultaneously. 

NONPAREIL

Coloured sugar balls for candies or cake decoration. They are used, among other things, to decorate chocolate buttons.

SOUFFLE

A candy containing whipped egg white. The sweet foam may also be made from fruit or berries. For example, the “Linnupiim” candies have a souffle filling.

SKIMMED MILK POWDER

Produced by drying skimmed milk. Skimmed milk is milk from which almost all the milk fat has been removed, containing less than 1.5% fat.

TRUFFLE

The queen of chocolate-based candies. Truffles originate from Belgium and were originally made by hand. The soft creamy contents were covered with a thin chocolate layer and then rolled in cocoa powder. The resulting irregularly shaped candy resembled the valuable mushroom – this is how chocolate truffles got their name. Over time, the content and shape of truffles have varied, but the basic ingredients are still the same: chocolate, butter, cream, condensed milk, and fruit concentrates, nut pastes, coffee or vanilla pods and definitely alcoholic beverages and extracts for flavouring. 

TEMPERING

Treatment of chocolate paste before use to ensure that the finished product is nice and shiny, with a good texture and good shelf life. All this is determined by the crystalline structure of the cocoa butter in the chocolate, which is affected by tempering. There are various methods of tempering. In industrial production, the most common way of influencing the chocolate mass is through a very precise temperature cycle, during which the chocolate is first melted completely, then cooled to a certain temperature and then reheated a little. Only then is the chocolate mass ready for use. Temperatures must be extremely accurate throughout the process and follow a specific formula: a mistake of as little as 0.2 degrees in the temperature range can prove disastrous for the quality of the chocolate.

TOFFEE

The toffee mass is traditionally boiled together from sugar and milk, resulting in a pleasant taste of caramel characteristic of toffee candies. Toffees can be either soft, hard, or with a pleasantly melting, slightly viscous structure. 

VEGETABLE FAT

Fat obtained from vegetable products. Most vegetable fats are liquid at room temperature and are therefore referred to as vegetable oils (e.g. rapeseed, olive and sunflower oil). There are also vegetable fats which are solid at room temperature, e.g. coconut fat. 

WAFER CANDIES

Candies with baked wafer sheets with cream spread between them. The cream is made from different fats (cocoa butter, vegetable fat), cocoa bean pulp, nuts, sugar powder, powder additives and flavourings.

WHEY POWDER

Whey powder is produced by drying whey, which is a by-product of cheese and curd production. Whey powder consists mainly of milk sugar or lactose.

WHOLE MILK POWDER

Produced by drying whole milk. Whole milk is milk with a fat content of at least 3.5%. The fat content of whole milk powder must not be less than 26%, but has to remain under 42%.